|Armada painting by O. Brierley|
1588 English naval forces under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Gravelines, France. One of the explanations for the term "Black Irish" has traditionally been that dark hair and eyes among the Irish population trace back to a Spanish genetic contribution,
as a result of sailors from damaged Armada ships being wrecked on the coast of Ireland. In fact the Celtic migrations have gone from the Danube area and across the Iberian peninsula before proceeding on to Ireland in earlier history. The population of Ireland show no significant contribution of a Spanish influence, lacking all but minute traces of certain characteristic genetic markers found in Spain. The Spanish Armada naval battle was an eastern hemisphere battle that preceded, and continued as the on-going western hemisphere battle between the competing empires of England and Spain, Anglo and Hispanic, the continuing influences reflected in the modern immigration battles in states like Arizona.
1899 – The First Hague Convention treaty is signed. The First and Second Hague Conventions defined what became the Geneva Conventions, originally called the Geneva Protocols to the Hague Convention. The Hague Convention defined and codified laws of war, war crimes, and began restrictions on weapons and technology used in warfare. It also established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, and the beginnings of international law. It was also the predecessor to the League of Nations and the subsequent establishment of the United Nations. There was a Second Hague Convention in 1907, and a Third Hague Convention was planned, but unfortunately World War I precluded it taking place as scheduled. The U.S. was not a signatory to the 1899 Convention accords, but was a signatory to the 1907 Second Hague Convention treaty.
1901 – The Socialist Party of America founded from two other Socialist groups, and elected officials from that party at various levels of government, including in the heartland of the U.S. At right is their campaign material for their presidential and vice presidential candidates. One or more socialist parties have existed in the United States since well before 1900, and are as legitimately American as any other party has been which is comprised of American citizens, and which participates in our representative process. Something which the Tea Partiers and others apparently seem to forget when lettering their various signs and making their speeches. There is nothing inherently anti-American in socialism. It is simply one more legitimate political movement and party, in this case a very old one, in the history and current events of the United States. Contrary to what voices on the right like Palin, Bachmann, Gingrich and numerous others would have less history-literate followers believe.
1907 – Sir Robert Baden Powell sets up the Brownsea Island Scout camp in Poole Harbour on the south coast of England. The camp ran from August 1-9, 1907, and is regarded as the foundation of the Scouting movement and the Girl Guides movement. Indirectly, you have Baden Powell to thank for Girl Scout cookies.
1921 Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.
1957 The International Atomic Energy Agency is established, to promote peaceful use of atomic power, and to limit and discourage not-peaceful uses.
1958 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act, which creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
1959 First United States Congress elections in Hawaii as a state of the Union. These items of historic significance are included to reflect expanding borders, expanding populations, contributing influences on current events and points of conflicting spheres of influence.
1988 The film Cry Freedom is seized by South African authorities. A biography of the struggle and subsequent death of anti-apartheid Seven Biko and his friendship with white journalist Donald Woods who wrote two books on which the movie was based. The movie received significant recognition in the year's Oscars and other film awards. It is credited with contributing to the end of apartheid, and for exposing rampant corruption and violence in South Africa. Actors Denzel Washington and Kevin Kline performed the leading roles; it was directed by Lord Richard Attenborough
|Eris and Dysnomia|
2005 Astronomers announce their discovery of Eris, a dwarf planet, and its moon, Dysnomia. Larger than Pluto, which was demoted from planetary status, its recognition created a surprising uproar among planetarium fans and school children when it replaced Pluto as the 9th and most distant (so far) planet in orbit around the sun.
So far, we have only been to the moon, and to mars; but if we can see it, and take pictures of it, it is only a matter of time until it too is explored.