Apologies to readers, power outages and other storm difficulties have delayed the posting today's history edition.
586 Death of Radegund, Frankish princess consort of King Chlothar I (b. c. 520).
1521 Tenochtitlán (present day Mexico City) falls to conquistador Hernán Cortés.
1536 Buddhist monks from Kyōto's Enryaku-ji temple set fire to 21 Nichiren temples, a rival branch of Buddhism, in the Tenbun Hokke Disturbance.
1553 Michael Servetus is arrested on the orders of French protestant minister John Calvin, founder of Presbyterianism, in Geneva as a heretic. Servetus was executed for heresy under orders of the Geneva council, by being burned at the stake. The heresy for which Servetus was condemned, to be fair condemned equally by the Protestants and Roman Catholicism, was rejection of the trinity. Servetus was a Spaniard, a polymath, he made important contributions in the fields of medicine, anatomy, including describing pulmonary circulation, and pharmacology. Other areas of study in which Servetus excelled included mathematics, geography, meteorology, and jurisprudence. He was also a scholar of biblical languages. The history of our religious intolerance within Christianity is important as a contextual background to issues of religion and politics in current events.
1792 King Louis XVI of France is formally arrested by the National Tribunal, and declared an enemy of the people. He was later guillotined.
1806 Battle of Mišar during the Serbian revolution begins. The battle will end two days later, with a decisive Serbian victory over the Ottomans. Part of the continuing Balkan buffer zone conflicts between Muslim and Christian regions.
1814 The Convention of London, a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces, is signed in London exchanging imperial colonial areas and agreeing to expenditures for mutual defense. The treaty also ended the Dutch involvement in the slave trade in British ports.
1818 Birth of Lucy Stone, American suffragette and abolitionist, she was one of the founders of the woman's suffrage and feminist movements (d. 1893). She was a noted orator, and organizer at the state level to gain the vote for women.
1863 Death of Eugène Delacroix, French painter (b. 1798)
1889 German Ferdinand von Zeppelin patents his Navigable Balloon.
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1899 Birth of Alfred Hitchcock, English film director (d. 1980)
Otto Witte, an acrobat, is purportedly crowned King of Albania.
1910 Death of Florence Nightingale, English nurse (b. 1820)
1913 First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.
1918 Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha Mae Johnson is the first woman to enlist.
Birth of Frederick Sanger, English chemist, double Nobel Laureate for chemistry. He is the only living Nobel Laureate of four to have received the honor twice.
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) established as a public company in Germany.
1937 The Battle of Shanghai begins between the Nationalist Chinese Party and the Japanese Empire; the battle lasted for three months of house to house fighting, and involved a million combatants.
1946 Birth of H. G. Wells, English writer, most notably of science fiction (b. 1866).
1961 The German Democratic Republic of East Germany closes the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin to thwart its inhabitants' attempts to escape to the West by erecting the infamous Berlin Wall.
2004 Hurricane Charley, a Category 4 storm, strikes Punta Gorda, Florida and devastates the surrounding area.
156 Congolese Tutsi refugees are massacred at the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.
2008 Michael Phelps sets the Olympic record for the most gold medals won by an individual in Olympic history with his win in the men's 200m butterfly, making 8 in a single Olympics. Phelps won 16 medals overall, in two Olympics, and groke 38 world records in swimming.