1192 Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the de facto ruler of Japan as the first Kamakura Shogunate. Shogun translates loosely as general; the Shoguns ruled as the effective hereditary military regime with the Emperors as the nominal figureheads in virtual captivity. The Kamakura Shogunate lasted until 1336 when the Kamakura lost their final power struggle, beginning the Ashikaga Shogunate (sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate). The Ashikaga Shogunate lasted until 1573, and after a period of internicine war, was succeeded by the Tokugawa Shogunate (the one popularized by the James Clavell novel, Shogun. and the old Richard Chamberlain miniseries). The Tokugawa Shogunate lasted from aproximately 1603 until 1868. The Meiji Period lasted from 1868 until 1912, and included the opening of Japan to the western powers. The motto of the Meiji period was "Enrich the country, strengthen the military"; during this period Japan rapidly industrialized under military authority, positioning it for entry into WW I.
1680 – Pueblo Indians capture Santa Fe from Spanish during the Pueblo Revolt. Native Americans resist Spanish colonization which included adopting Roman Catholicism, and some forced labor. Franciscan missionaries attempted to eradicate Native American religious items, and medicine men were arrested, some were hanged, at least one committed suicide, others were publicly flogged and then imprisoned, which was a sort of catalyst for the latent resentment to become a full-fledged revolt. The uprising killed half of the Franciscans, and 380 Spanish men, women, and children. The remaining Spanish settlers fled to Santa Fe, and then some 3,000 settlers from the region fled to El Paso. In 1692 Diego de Vargas retook Santa Fe, but it continued to be contested until de Vargas thoroughly crushed opposition among the Pueblos. Religion, politics, history.
1689 The Battle of Dunkeld in Scotland, the 'Dundee's Rising', as part of the Jacobites conflict; the Jacobites lost, and William of Orange took the throne of England .
1770 James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales. Cook died during a later Pacific voyage, his third, in 1779 in Hawaii, in a battle with the Hawaiians; and 180 years later it became the 50th state of the U.S.
1772 King Gustav III completes his coup d'état by adopting a new Constitution, ending half a century of parliamentary rule in Sweden and installing himself as an enlightened despot and absolute monarch. He was later assassinated by the Swedish nobility. Sweden during this period included both Norway and Finland.
1810 Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, is elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates. He was invited because the old ruling house, the Oldenburg was dying out, and because Bernadotte was popular with the Swedish army.
1878 The American Bar Association is founded.
1911 – The Mona Lisa is stolen by a Louvre employee.
1928 – WRNY began regularly scheduled television broadcasts in New York City. Which proves that when Joe Biden said to Katie Couric in the famous interview gaffe, he was only half wrong:
"When the stock market crashed, Franklin D. Roosevelt got on the television and didn't just talk about the, you know, the princes of greed. He said, 'Look, here's what happened." Hoover was president during the stock market crash, and neither Hoover nor FDR got on television to the public; they used radio. But they DID have television broadcasts at the time, just not very many people had television sets. For those who enjoy minutia and silly trivia.
1944 – Dumbarton Oaks Conference, prelude to the United Nations, begins.
1959 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union, guaranteeing eventually Obama could become President. Hawaii's admission is currently commemorated by Hawaii Admission Day. When all others attempts fail, I'm waiting for the birthers to try to undo Hawaii as a state. Betting pool, anyone?
1969 An Australian, Michael Dennis Rohan, sets the Al-Aqsa Mosque on fire in Jerusalem. He was stopped, arrested, tried, found to be crinially insane, hospitalized in a mental institution, and later deported. Rohan claimed to be acting on divine instructions to destroy the mosque in order to begin the building of the third temple on the temple mount by the Jews per the biblical book of Zechariah. The fire he started took four hours to extinguish and did considerable damage. The building of the third Jewish Temple on the site was intended to facilitate the second coming of Christ. Rohan claimed to be the prophesied 'Lord's Emissary'. Rohan's actions led to a ban for several years on non-muslims entering the Mosque.
1986 Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.
1991 Latvia declares renewal of its full independence after the occupation of Soviet Union.
A hard-line coup against Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev collapsed in the face of a popular uprising led by Russian federation President Boris N. Yeltsin.
|Ruby Ridge site|
1992 Ruby Ridge Standoff in Idaho. Timothy McVeigh cited the Ruby Ridge and Waco incidents as justification for the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995.
1993 NASA loses contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft.
2001 NATO decides to send a peace-keeping force to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.