|Hannibal and Elephant|
on ancient coin
216 BC Second Punic War (of three), the Battle of Cannae. The Carthaginian army lead by Hannibal defeats a numerically superior Roman army under command of consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. Punic, for those who are unfamiliar with ancient history, refers to the Latin word for the Phoenicians, who settled Carthage in Africa, and were a major rival empire. Sicily had been the nexus point of their clashing expansions. The Second Punic War is the one most remembered for Hannibal of Carthage crossing the Alps with elephants. Hannibal started across with 37, and arrived in Italy with 22. The idea for using elephants against the ancient Romans is attributed to Hannibal having studied the writings about Alexander the Great and Indian war elephants. That would be the same Ptolemy, the Greek general, who originated the dynasty of the Pharaohs of Egypt that ended with Cleopatra III and Marc Antony.
|James Bay, where Hudson|
was set adrift by mutineers
1869 Japan's samurai, farmer, artisan, merchant class system (Shinōkōshō) is abolished as part of the Meiji Restoration reforms.
|engraving of the tower subway |
from the approximate opening date
1870 Tower Subway, the world's first underground tube railway, opens in London.
1943 Rebellion in the Nazi death camp of Treblinka.
World War II: PT-109 rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri and sinks. Lt. John F. Kennedy, future U.S. President, saves all but two of his crew.
|U.S. Navy in the Gulf of Tonkin|
1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident, technically, the second Gulf of Tonkin incident is claimed to have taken place. Allegations that North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly fired on U.S. destroyers, USS Maddox and the USS Turner Joy became the basis for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which granted broad discretionary powers to President Lyndon Johnson to provide aid to any south east Asian government deemed in jeopardy from "communist aggression". In fact, no such incident or attack ever occurred; it was purely the legal basis for Johnson to deploy extensive U.S. military forces and to begin open war against North Viet Nam. Daniel Ellsberg was on duty at the Pentagon when this occurred, and it became part of his secretly released Pentagon Papers. The New York Times, in reference to the Pentagon Papers wrote they "demonstrated, among other things, that the Johnson Administration had systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress, about a subject of transcendent national interest and significance". Which provides an interesting precedent to interpreting a variety of recent history, from the claims about the Iraq War, to the recent wikileaks of 97,000 classified documents.
1980 A bomb exploded at the railway station in Bologna, Italy, killing 85 people and wounding more than 200. The bomb was an IED placed in a suitcase. Originally believed to be an act of the terrorist group the Red Brigades, it was later attributed to Neo-Fascists. Known in Italy as the Bologna Massacre, when the train station was rebuilt, certain parts of the original were retained, including the station's main clock which stopped at the time of the actual explosion in memoriam to those who died in the terrorist attack.
1989 Pakistan was re-admitted back into the Commonwealth of Nations, for restoring democracy after a military coup led to a series of military dictatorship from 1958 to 1972, and then a second coup and subsequent dictatorships from 1972 to 1988, with the occasional civil war in the mix of events.
1990 Iraq invades Kuwait, eventually leading to conflict with coalition forces in the Gulf War.
2000 Republicans nominated Texas Gov. George W. Bush for president and Dick Cheney for vice president at the party's convention in Philadelphia.