1218 Al-Kamil becomes Sultan of Egypt, Syria and northern Mesopotamia on the death of his father Al-Adil. He was of Kurdish ethnicity, of the Sunni Ayyubid Sultanate and his territory also included a good part of northern Africa, Israel, Jordan, and parts of modern Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Al Kamil defeated the Fifth and Sixth Crusades. Al Kamil also had a very positive and constructive meeting with St. Francis of Assisi, which later in the Franciscan order being recognized as 'Custodians of the Holy Land' on behalf of Christianity.
1422 Henry VI becomes King of England at the age of 9 months. His reign, under regents, included the conflicts in France with Joan of Arc. His reign spanned from 1422 to 1437 under regents, and under his own authority from 1437 to 1461, and again from 1470 to 1471. He had regents ruling again from 1453 to 1454 because he had a nervous breakdown. In the course of the War of the Roses, another civil war between branches of the House of Lancaster - Henry - and the House of York, led by his cousin, Edward of York, York won. Henry VI was kept prisoner in the Tower of London from 1465 until his death in the Tower of London in 1471, where he was possibly murdered by his successor Edward of York, aka Edward IV. Shakespeare in his history plays, Henry VI and Richard III, accuses Richard III, Edward VI's younger brother, of Henry VI's murder. Shakespeare also wrote a three-part history play of the life of Henry VI, as well as the more famous Henry V history play with the famous scenes of Henry V before the Battle of Agincourt, territory lost by Henry VI.
1569 Birth of Jahangir, Mughal Emperor of India (d. 1627). His mother was a Rajput Princess of Jaipur, a Hindu. While he expanded the Mughal empire, he was tolerant of religions; he held Hindu law applied to Hindus and Muslem laws to Muslems in civil cases, to respect the different traditions; with one law applied to everyone in criminal cases.
1803 Lewis and Clark start their expedition to the west by leaving Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at 11 o clock in the morning. This was the third recorded transcontinental crossing of North America, after the Cabeza de Vaca expedition of 1536, and the Sir Alexander Mackenzie expedition of 1789. Lewis and Clark did not complete their return trip until 1806.
1864 During the American Civil War, Union forces led by General William T. Sherman launch an assault on Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman conducted a 'scorched earth'' policy, which included ordering the evacuation of Atlanta, followed by much of Atlanta being burned to the ground.
1888 Mary Ann Nichols is murdered. She is the first of Jack the Ripper's known victims.
1907 Count Alexander Izvolsky and Sir Arthur Nicolson sign the St. Petersburg Convention, which results in the Triple Entente alliance, which became the 'Allied' side of the war in WW I against the Central Powers.
1920 First radio news program broadcast by station 8MK in Detroit, Michigan.
1935 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an act prohibiting the export of U.S. arms to belligerents.
Birth of Eldridge Cleaver, American political activist (d. 1998)
1939 Nazi Germany mounts a staged attack on Gleiwitz radio station, creating an excuse to attack Poland the following day, starting World War II in Europe.
1940 Pennsylvania Central Airlines Trip 19 crashes near Lovettsville, Virginia. The CAB investigation of the accident was the first investigation to be conducted under the Bureau of Air Commerce act of 1938.
1943 The USS Harmon, the first U.S. Navy ship to be named after a black person, is commissioned.
1945 The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies.
1949 The retreat of the Greek Democratic Army in Albania after its defeat in mountain Grammos marks the end of the Greek Civil War.
1958 A parcel bomb sent by Ngo Dinh Nhu, younger brother and chief adviser of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, failed to kill Sihanouk of Cambodia.
1963 Death of Georges Braque, French painter in the Cubism movement. (b. 1882)
1978 William and Emily Harris, founders of the Symbionese Liberation Army, plead guilty to the 1974 kidnapping of newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst.
1986 Death of Henry Moore, (OM, CH, FBA), English sculptor noted for his massive bronze modern figural works (b. 1898)
1991 Kyrgyzstan declares its independence from the Soviet Union; this day continues to be celebrated as Kyrgyzstan Independence Day.
1992 White separatist Randy Weaver surrendered to authorities in Naples, Idaho, ending an 11-day siege by federal agents that claimed the lives of Weaver's wife and son and a deputy U.S. marshal. This 'Ruby Ridge' incident later is cited as one of the causes for the Oklahoma City Bombing by Timothy McVeigh.
1994 Russia officially ended its military presence in the former East Germany and the Baltics after half a century. The Provisional Irish Republican Army declares a ceasefire.
1998 North Korea reportedly launches Kwangmyongsong, its first satellite.
1999 The first of a series of bombings in Moscow, killing one person and wounding 40 others. Called the Russian Apartment Bombings, the series of bombings killed 293 people, and injured another 651, and was carried out by Chechen Islamist militias in conjunction with the Invasion of Dagestan (see 'Make a New Plan, Stan').
2005 A stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad kills 1,199 people.
2006 Iran defied a U.N. deadline to stop enriching uranium.