Saturday, September 25, 2010
July 22nd in History
His exploits inspired Sir Walter Scott to write Exploits and Death of William Wallace in part. Descendant Randall Wallace wrote the screenplay for the 1995 movie Braveheart based on his life which won 5 Academy Awards. The tower at left is a monument in William Wallace's honor.
1686 Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick. Before his sojourn to the New World, he had led an adventurous life, including having been Lieutenant-Governor of Tangiers. Dongan had been a member of the Irish Parliament earlier in his life, and was responsible for convening the first representative assembly in New York. This various traditions of representative government became a powerful impetus to the American Revolution.
1849 Birth of Emma Lazarus, poet, who wrote the words inscribed ont he Statue of Liberty.
1933 – Wiley Post becomes the first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 hours and 45 minutes. Post pioneered high altitude flight, and flight with an auto-pilot device and a radio directional finder. Post died in a plane crash, accompanied by famous humorist Will Rogers who also died.
1942 The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands, which is as much or more about saving tire rubber as it is about the need for gasoline.
Holocaust: the systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.
1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting the period of Communist rule in Poland until 1989 with the election of Lech Walesa from the Solidarity movement.
1946 King David Hotel bombing: Irgun bombs King David Hotel in Jerusalem, headquarters of the British civil and military administration, killing 90. The Irgen was a zionist organization labelled as terrorists around the world in headlines. The King David continues in business to this day as a prominent Jerusalem hotel despite the obvious extensive damage at the time.
1951 Dezik (Дезик) and Tsygan (Цыган, "Gypsy") were the first dogs to make a sub-orbital flight. Both dog survived the flight and were recovered unharmed. Dezik made a second flight with another dog, but did not survive. In the Soviet Union, prior to launching a human in space, a series of dogs were used rather than primates. The dogs wore pressure suits and acrylic bubble-style helmets. Tsygan was adopted out of the space program by a Soviet scientist.
1976 Japan completes its last reparation to the Philippines for war crimes committed in Japan's imperial conquest of the country in the Second World War.
1981 Turkish extremist Mehmet Ali Agca was sentenced in Rome to life in prison for shooting Pope John Paul II. (He served 19 years.)
1998 Iran tested a medium-range missile capable of reaching Israel or Saudi Arabia.
2002 Israel kills Salah Shahade, the Commander-in-Chief of Hamas's military arm, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.
2003 Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay's 14-year old son, and a bodyguard.