Saturday, September 25, 2010
July 21st in History
It was rebuilt by Alexander the Great, and destroyed by the Goths. It was rebuilt a third time in 391, and destroyed by a mob led by St. Chrysostom in 401, when it stayed destroyed. The Ephesus temple was known for it's many-breasted figures of the Goddess Artemis, sometimes also identified as the many-breasted Diana. The site of Ephesus, location for the book Ephesians in the Bible, subsequently became a center for the medieval 'Cult of the Virgin Mary' in Christianity. The site has historically had connections to worship or reverence for female deity figures going back at least as far as the Bronze age. Give yourself bonus history points if you can name the other seven wonders of the world in antiquity; double bonus points if you can place where they were (one still exists).
365 A tsunami devastates the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The tsunami is caused by an earthquake estimated to be 8.0 on the Richter Scale. 5,000 people perished in the Alexandria, and 45,000 more died outside of the city.
Not the same Jean-Felix Picard and twin brother Auguste Picard that were the source Gene Roddenberry used for the Star Trek Next Generation character's name; they were two Swiss scientists. However, I couldn't help but notice that there was a striking resemblance between this Jean-Felix Picard and the actor Patrick Stewart. (something for the Penigma geeks among us, including me)
1865 In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots and kills Davis Tutt in what is regarded as the first true western showdown; Missouri was at the time 'the wild west' if not entirely 'the frontier'. It was still a few decades from becoming 'fly over land'.
1873 At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James-Younger gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the American Old West. Yes, Iowa is considered the 'wild west' not the 'not so wild' middle of the U.S.
1877 After rioting by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad workers and the deaths of nine rail workers at the hands of the Maryland militia, workers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania stage a sympathy strike that is met with an assault by the state militia.
1899 Birth of Ernest Hemingway, American writer, Nobel laureate 1954 (d. 1961)
1918 U-156 shells Nauset Beach, in Orleans, Massachusetts. This is the first time that the United States is shelled since the Mexican-American War.
1922 Birth of Mollie Sugden, British comedic actress who became famous for her portrayal of the character Mrs. Slocum in the long running "Are You Being Served" (d. 2009)
1925 Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.
Sir Malcolm Campbell becomes the first man to break the 150 mph (241 km/h) land barrier at Pendine Sands in Wales. He drove a Sunbeam to a two-way average of 150.33 mph (242 km/h).
1944 Birth of Paul Wellstone, Minnesota Senator (d. 2002)
World War II: Battle of Guam – American troops land on Guam starting the battle. It would end on August 10. Today is celebrated as Guam Independence Day.
World War II: Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg and fellow conspirators are executed in Berlin, Germany for the July 20 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler
1954 First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
1961 Mercury program: Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission with Gus Grissom piloting Liberty Bell 7 becomes the second American to go into space (in a suborbital mission).
1972 Bloody Friday bombing by the Provisional Irish Republican Army around Belfast, Northern Ireland – 22 bomb explosions, 9 people killed and 130 people seriously injured.
1976 Christopher Ewart-Biggs British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland is assassinated by the Provisional IRA.
1977 The start of a four day long Libyan-Egyptian War takes place. Which is two days shorter than the six days war ten years earlier between Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Israel.
1983 The world's lowest temperature is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2°C (−129°F).
1994 Tony Blair is declared the winner of the leadership election of the British Labour Party, paving the way for him to become Prime Minister in 1997.
1997 The fully restored USS Constitution (aka "Old Ironsides") celebrates her 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.
2008 – Bosnian-Serb war criminal Radovan Karadžić is arrested in Serbia and is indicted by the UN's ICTY tribunal.