|Patriarch Nestorious icon|
435 Deposed Patriarch of Constantinople Nestorius, considered the originator of Nestorianism, is exiled by Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II to a monastery in Egypt. Nestorianism is one of the divisions in Christianity; in this case significant to the formation of the Eastern Rites Churches.
|Otis demonstration |
of safety equipment
1811 Elisha Graves Otis, American inventor of safety devices for elevators(d. 1861); look for the name Otis on any elevator you take this week. That would be the same Otis.
1900 The Firestone Tire & Rubber Company is founded.
|some of the Hop Riot workers,|
|Hop Riot Historic|
Land Mark on the site
of the Durst Ranch
1916 World War I: Battle of Romani, Allied forces, under the command of Archibald Murray, defeat an attacking Ottoman army, under the command of Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, securing the essential Suez Canal, and beginning the Ottoman retreat from the Sinai. The defeat of the Ottoman Empire altered the political control of the region, making it possible for the Balfour Declaration of 1917, establishing a Jewish home nation in Palestine.
1920 P. D. James, English novelist
1924 Leon Uris, American novelist (d. 2003)
1936 Jesse Owens, a black American, wins the 100 meter dash, defeating Ralph Metcalfe, at the Berlin Olympics. Winning a total of 4 gold medals, his performance undermined Hitler's contentions about Aryan racial superiority.
1943 Gen. George S. Patton slapped a private at an army hospital in Sicily, accusing him of cowardice.
|Alger Hiss during testimony|
1948 Whittaker Chambers accuses Alger Hiss of being a communist and a spy for the Soviet Union during the anti-communist witch hunt House Committee on Un-American Activities hearings, convened by Wisconsin Senator Joe McCarthy. Alger Hiss had been a distinguished member of the State Department, and also involved in establishing the United Nations. Hiss was convicted of perjury, but could not be tried for espionage because the statute of limitations had run. There is a great deal of continuing controversy over whether Hiss and his wife were or were not spies, and whether the U.S. government used forged documents to gain his conviction.
1977 The United States Senate hearing on MKULTRA, the secret testing of drugs, including hallucinogenics like LSD, on unwitting and non-consenting subjects, both American and Canadians, and possibly other foreign citizens. Nixon administration CIA director Richard Helms ordered all files destroyed in an attempted cover-up of the project. In the context of 1977 congressional probes into the project, Sen. Ted Kennedy stated from the floor of the Senate, "The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations." At least one death, that of Dr. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers." MKULTRA supposedly ran from the early 1950s through the late 1960s, and a predecessor program ran from the mid 1940s. Some individuals from within the intelligence community have suggested that MKULTRA was not so much abandoned, as resumed under other identification. Ultimately 45 colleges and universities, 15 research organizations including prominent pharmaceutical companies, a dozen or more hospitals and clinics, and at least three prisons participated in testing without consent. Testing on human subjects without their informed consent had formed a significant part of the justification for some of the Nuremberg Trials, and was understood to be highly unethical as well as illegal by the participating researchers and organizations.